Anshan City

                            鞍山印象(圖1)

                            Anshan City of Liaoning is built and prospered by steel. It has a century of industrial history, and has been known as the “China’s Steel Capital and the Cradle of China’s Steel Industry”. It is the third largest city in Liaoning Province, and gains its name due to a mountain similar in shape as saddle in the south part of the city. It has won many great honors successively, including the National Civilized City, National Health City, National Forest City, National Garden City, China Excellent Tourism City, National Double Support Model City (seven consecutive championships), and Northeast China Revitalization Private Economic Development and Reform Demonstration City, etc.


                            The geographical coordinates of Anshan are between 122°10'~123°41' (east longitude) and 40°27'~41°34' (north latitude). The widest span is 133 km from east to west and the longest span is 175 km from north to south. It is located in the geometric center of the Liaodong Peninsula, and is an important fulcrum of the Shenyang-Dalian Golden Economic Belt and an important connecting belt between the Shenyang Economic Zone and the Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt. The north-south and east-west traffic channels of the Liaodong Peninsula intersect here. It is 270 km away from Dalian Port, 90 km away from Taoxian International Airport, and 100 km away from Yingkou Port. The railway and highway networks are complete, the Changchun-Dalian Railway and Shenyang-Dalian Expressway pass through from north to south, and the Beijing-Shenyang Expressway and Qinhuangdao-Shenyang High Speed Railway Passenger Dedicated Line pass through Anshan. Anshan Airport has opened the direct flights to Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Nanjing, etc.


                            Anshan has a total area of 9,255 square kilometers, accounting for 8.4% of the total area of Liaoning Province, of which, the urban area is 792 square kilometers. The topography of Anshan City is characterized by high in the southeast and low in the northwest, sloping from the southeast to the northwest. The southeast is a mountainous area extended from the Qianshan Mountains, with a general altitude of 300~600 m. The central part is the transition zone from the Qianshan Mountains to the western alluvial plain, which is a low hilly area and with a general altitude of 100~200 m. The west part is alluvial plain of Liao River, Hun River and Taizi River, with a general altitude of 5~20 m.


                            There are 66 large, medium and small rivers over 50 square kilometers in Anshan. There are five rivers over 5000 square kilometers, which are Liao River, Hun River, Taizi River, Raoyang River and Dayang River; two medium rivers with a drainage area of 1000-5000 square kilometers, which are Haicheng River and Shaozi River; and 59 small rivers with a drainage area of 1000 square kilometers. The Liao River is one of the seven major rivers in China, and it is also the largest river flowing through the territory of Anshan City.


                            Anshan is located at the southeastern edge of the Songliao Plain in the middle latitude, and belongs to a warm temperate continental monsoon climate zone. The main climatic characteristics are: four distinct seasons, rain and heat in the same period, dry and cold in the same season, abundant precipitation, suitable temperature, abundant sunlight, and relatively little severe disastrous weather. Although the regions within the jurisdiction of Anshan belong to the same climatic zone, the climate varies from region to region due to the difference in geographical environment (topography and landform). The annual average precipitation is 640~880 mm, which decreases gradually from southeast to northwest; the annual average temperature is 8.0℃~9.0℃ in plain areas, and 6.3℃~7.0℃ in eastern and southeast mountainous areas; the annual average sunshine duration is 2350-2700 hours.


                            Anshan has a registered population of 3.4 million and an urbanization rate of 72.26% for the permanent residents. It has jurisdiction over 4 districts (Tiedong, Tiexi, Lishan, and Qianshan), 1 county-level city (Haicheng), and 2 counties (Taian County and Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County), including 55 towns, 40 sub-districts, 830 villages, and 348 communities. In addition to the formal administrative divisions, Anshan City has also established Anshan Economic Development Zone (provincial economic development zone), Anshan High-tech Industrial Development Zone (national development zone), and Anshan Qianshan Scenic Area (national AAAAA tourist attraction).


                            Rich mineral resources. The whole city has discovered 33 kinds of mineral resources (under 12 categories), the proven reserves of iron, magnesite, talc and jade rank first in our country, and the proven reserves of calcite and geothermal water rank first in our province. At present, 28 kinds of mineral resources have been exploited and utilized, among them, the advantageous iron ore is huge in scale and rich in reserves, with the recoverable reserves of 8.855 billion tons and prospective reserves of 20 billion tons;


                            Magnesite ore is large in scale and high in quality. It is mainly crystalline magnesite, with the recoverable reserves of 2.414 billion tons, ranking first in our country and having advantage in the world; talc is mostly high-grade talc mine, which is of high quality and well-known at home and abroad, and has great resource potential, and the recoverable reserves are 81,844,300 tons, ranking first in our country. Jade is mainly produced in the Xiuyan region, and is famous for its fine and moist texture, bright color, and crystal-clear property; the recoverable reserves are 597,900 tons. The recoverable reserves are of calcite ore are 45,688,200 tons.


                            Solid industrial foundation. Our city has formed an industrial system dominated by steel, magnesite, and equipment manufacturing. In 2020, steel, magnesite and equipment manufacturing accounted for 55.1%, 17.4%, and 5.6% of the industrial enterprises above designated size respectively. In the iron and steel industry, there are currently 85 steel and deep processing enterprises above designated size, and the leading products cover deep processing of plates, deep processing of wires, deep processing of profiles, deep processing of pipes, and steel structures. Ansteel is the most distinctive city symbol of Anshan. Ansteel has obvious advantages in products such as steel for national defense, steel for ships and marine engineering, bridge steel, steel for nuclear power, steel for automobiles, steel for railways, steel for household appliances and steel for energy, and is the steel backbone of the great treasures in our country. In the magnesite industry, there are currently 209 enterprises above designated size, and the main products are magnesium-based refractory materials, magnesium building materials, and magnesium chemicals. In the equipment manufacturing industry, there are currently 151 enterprises above designated size, including 7 listed companies, i.e., Montnets Rongxin, Julong, Senyuan, Anzhong Inc., Fuan, HIFICHEM, and Yes Optoelectronics.


                            Strong foundation in science and education. Anshan has one national high-tech park, one national university science park, 360 high-tech enterprises, two academician workstations, and 21 various research institutes. The city has three general institutes of higher education, namely University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan Normal University, Anshan Vocational and Technical College, with 51,224 students. It also has six secondary vocational schools with 6,826 students. Anshan Vocational Education City is one of the largest vocational education parks in our country, and integrates skilled talents training, college student practical training, farmer-to-worker training and socialized continuing education and training. It is planned to cover an area of 3 square kilometers and can accommodate 110,000 students for studying.


                            Unique tourism resources. It has five major tourism brands: the world’s largest Jade Buddha, the famous hot spring in Asia, the national scenic spot of Qianshan, the capital of precious jade in China, and the steel capital of China. Qianshan Mountain, known as “the first mountain in eastern Liaoning”, is a national AAAAA tourist attraction, where Buddhism and Taoism coexist and a unique religious culture is formed. The Jade Buddha Temple is one of the first AAAA tourist attractions in our country, and has a jade Buddha carved from the “Jade King” weighing 260.76 tons, which won a Guinness world record. Tanggangzi Hot Spring Sanatorium is one of the four major rehabilitation centers in our country, and the natural thermal mineral mud is praised as the “No. 1 Mud in Asia”. The Ansteel’s Industrial Tourism with the theme of “How the Steel Was Tempered” is the first batch of industrial tourism demonstration sites in our country. Xiuyan, the capital of gems and jades, is the largest jade producing area and jade carving handicraft distribution center in China, and is named the “Jade Capital of China” by the China Mining Association.


                            Profound cultural heritage. The earliest civilization of Anshan can be traced back to ancient times. The archaeological discovery of the ancient human site at Xiaogushan in Haicheng proves that humans began to live and multiply here about 20,000 years ago. Definitive records began in Yan Kingdom in the Warring States Period, at that time, Anshan belonged to Liaodong County. The iron smelting culture has a long history, iron smelting by indigenous method began in Han Dynasty and entered its heyday in the Liao and Jin Dynasties.


                            Heroes come forth in large numbers in Anshan. Zhang Xueliang, an eternal hero, Meng Tai, an old hero, Wang Chonglun, “the person who goes ahead of time”, Lei Feng, a great communist warrior, Guo Mingyi, “the contemporary Lei Feng”, Li Chao, “a model of the times”, and many other evocative heroes and model characters have become the strong driving force for Anshan's reform and development. Anshan dares to pioneer, and forges ahead in an innovative and enterprising spirit. The Ansteel Constitution is a milestone in the history of corporate management of China. In 1980s, the large market represented by Xiliu Clothing Market and Nantai Luggage Market made Haicheng a pioneer in the market economy of Liaoning Province and even the whole country. Folk cultures represented by Haicheng Stilt Yangko and Xiuyan Paper Cuttings are splendid, and Anshan has the largest number of national intangible cultural heritage in Liaoning Province. Anshan is “the hometown of storytelling”, and masters such as Liu Lanfang and Shan Tianfang are well-known to every household. Anshan is also the “hometown of table tennis”, and the “Anshan Team” composed of Ma Long, Li Xiaoxia and Guo Yue is well-known at home and abroad.

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